Anonymous papyrus – Turin 12

Probably from Thebes, 21th Dynasty, acquisition in 1824

This papyrus presents a complete version of the Amduat’s Twelfth Hour

The treatise’s structure consists of three horizontal registers. From left to right it describes the Netherworld’s reality through a multimodal composition of visual and linguistic signs

The Twelfth Hour describes the end of the Sun-god Re’s nocturnal journey through the Netherworld. Here, the Sun’s rejuvenation process takes place inside the life-regenerating serpent ankh-netscheru (Life of the gods), as we can see on the manuscript’s far right-hand side a beetle, Khepri, representing the Sun-god’s rebirthed form. Hence, Re, in his renewed form, exits the Netherworld travelling through the air-god Shu’s outstretched arms to be reborn as the sun disk at dawn. In the top and bottom registers, many deities witness the end of the Sun-god’s journey, praising the Great God and protecting him from the danger of his nemesis, the serpent Apophis

This hour presents the following scenes: The Twelve Goddesses with Snakes, The Twelve Worshipers, The Solar Boat, The Twelve Gods of Tow, The Snake of Rejuvenation, The Thirteen Goddesses of Tow, Khepri and Shu, The Primordial Deities, The Row of Rowers, The Ten Worshipers and The Mummy of Osiris (source Museo Egizio Papyri, research Enrico Pozzi, Shenali Boange)

Anonymous Amduat papyrus

Length 94 cm, height 24 cm
BD 1783, Turin 12, Type BA.II.1a Niwinski
See Museo Egizio for additional info
Photo website Museo Egizio and panorama view VB 2022