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Page Papyrus Nestanebetisheru

The framed sections of the  37 metres long Book of the Dead of Nestanebetisheru combined in one single slider (panoramaview)

Page Papyri

For the first time, it is possible to consult online 65 papyri very closely for study, publication or research. Many of the papyri shown were found with the grave goods or with the mummies of the Bab el Gasus Cache. See the Papyri page

Best to view on a desktop or laptop. Phones or tablets are less suitable for a proper projection

Example: Amduat papyrus for Djedmaatiusankh, length 146 cm, height 23 cm.
BA S.R.IV.542 = JE 95645, Cairo 8, Type A.III.1b Niwinski
Photo and panorama view VB 2021 (quality remarks)

Page ‘Bab el Gasus

On February 4, 1891, a startling discovery was made in Egypt that would stun the world’s media. After digging a deep shaft near the temple of Hatshepsut, a long gallery was found with more than 150 beautifully decorated coffins, shabti boxes and many other grave goods. All belonging to the highest elite from the priestly castes, including the sons and daughters of the rulers of the time.

Three thousand years ago, this highly secret tomb was filled at one go to give the deceased a secure hiding place to protect them from grave robbers.

More or less for the same security reasons the tomb had to be quickly emptied in 1891. In the process, much information was lost. Now, 130 years later, scientists from various museums and institutions are working to find out exactly what and who were found. An immense task coordinated in part by the Vatican Museum.

Many shabtis have also been found for which it was not known exactly which owner they belonged to. In many publications the information is fragmented, and an overall view was lacking. In 1998 Liliane Aubert made a first Bab el Gasus shabti publication and she thereby laid the foundation for further research.

Since 2006 I have been inspired by the research of Miguel Angel Escobar Clarós, Niek de Haan, Glenn Janes and Ingeborg Waanders. They, especially Miguel regarding Bab el Gasus, have done a tremendous amount of preliminary work which I have gratefully incorporated into my overview.

With new techniques such as digital scans of old publications, translation software and photos from many museums and the Internet, a huge web page has been created that provides almost all the known information about all types of shabtis found in Bab el Gasus.

It is therefore a great pleasure for me to launch this page. Exactly 130 years after the first coffin was recovered on February 5, 1891. I hope that many can use it for information, inspiration or further research.


Page ‘Sources

New Spanish edition on shabtis in museum and private collections written by shabti enthusiast  Javier Uriach Torrello. Although I unfortunately do not speak Spanish, I enjoyed browsing the book and it is a valuable addition to my library. Beautiful photos and everything seems neatly described. It contains more than 80 shabtis, 29 of which are from museums (16 of them from Museu de Montserrat) and 53 from private collections, 36 of which are from the author’s collection.

Uriach Torello, J.
AQUI ESTAMOS! Estatuillas funerarias egipcias de algunas colecciones de Barcelona
ISBN 10: 8409176661 / ISBN 13: 9788409176663, 242 pages
Published by Userkaf Patrimonial SL, Barcelona, 2020

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320

In my 24-08-2020 update, I incorrectly attributed this shabti to Nesykhonsu. Mr. Glenn Janes was kind enough to inform me that this shabti is her daughter. Text on the shabti reads ‘Nes-ta-nebt-Ischeru, justified, daughter of Nesy-Khonsu’.
Photo GJ

Page ‘Sources

Names and titles of published shabtis researched and published by Jean-Luc Chappaz. Here you will find more than 17,000 bibliographical references (name – title (s) – relationship – bibliographic reference). The classification according to the names inscribed on the statuettes and the distribution of attestations according to the major periods of Egyptian history.

Page ‘Nefertari

Overview shabtis Nefertari.

Nefertari, QV 66, Valley of Queens
Photo: VB 2019

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320

Mostly unpublished pictures of Royal Cache coffins added to the DB 320 shabtis with links to the website of the Theban Royal Mummy Project.

Page ‘Sources

The Amasis Collection:
A new publication of Glenn Janes with a foreword of Jean Thomassen. It holds detailed and very interesting information about the shabti art market over the last 60 years and holds high quality rare old and new photo’s, research, references and background material about discoveries, shabtis, tombs, coffins, finding spots, etc. This is a book for the library of serious dealers, collectors, musea and universities.
More info on


Page ‘Rare and special shabtis

Beautiful New Kingdom shabti of Hori with extremely rare attributes like the scribal palette and papyrus roll or a short, stout staff. Interestingly, although the inscription is damaged, enough survives to indicate that Hori was not a scribe. Source: Brooklyn Museum

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320

Shabti of Nesykhonsu  (Nestanebetisheru, see update 18-9-2020), daughter of Nesykhonsu. 
Private collection UK.
Photo GJ

Page ‘Sources

Excellent first publication (576 pages, hardcover) of the Gate of the Priests, also known as Bab el-Gasus and Cache II, in the series of Culture & History of the Ancient Near East. Contributions of Rogério Sousa, Maria Cristina Guidotti, Marianne Zarli, Rogério Sousa, Deborah Vannucci and Kathlyn Cooney with coffins, shabti boxes, provenance documents and 92 Cache II shabtis of 47 owners. ISBN-10: 9004386491

Page ‘Pharaoh shabtis

In my overview I attribute the shabtis of
Shoshenq II to Shoshenq I (founder of the 22nd Dynasty) based on the 2018 publication of
Mr. G.P.F. Broekman in Göttinger Miszellen no. 254. His research makes it highly likely that Shoshenq II and Soshenq I are in fact the same person. For this reason I omitted Shoshenq II in the 22nd Dynasty overview of Pharaoh’s.

Page ‘Sources
In June 2018 a very nicely worked out catalogue by Therea Kohl was issued in Germany. It describes the shabtis in the Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim. Like the Janes series the shabtis are displayed in real size. Excellent study material because the issuer added a CD with high resolution photos of all shabtis and fragments. ISBN-10: 3806788227.

Page ‘Rare and special shabtis

Three unique terracotta shabtis,
ca. 16 cm, 19th-20th Dynasty.
Photo: Christie’s

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320


Worker of Pinedjem I added in the overview as Worker 5.

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320
A very good friend found a photo of an extremely rare, special and magnificent styled and painted overseer of Pinedjem I. It is added in the overview as Overseer 2.

Page ‘Pharaohs
The only known ushebti from Psamtek III is removed from the Pharaoh page because my earlier doubts are supported by a basalt (stone) replica of Tuthmoses III that might be from the same workshop.

On the Pharaoh page I wrote that the Psamtek III was a strange anomaly. Nobody known to me has seen it and another ushebti of stone from this period (around 525 BC) was not known to me either. The discovery of the Tuthmoses III fake convinced me that the Psamtek is from recent date. Maybe even from the Grand Tour period when high end fakes and replica’s were sold to tourists.

On the left fake Tuthmoses III, basalt, auction Coutau-Bégarie 31/05/17, lot 184.
Photo: catalogue Coutau-Bégarie
On the right assumed fake Psamtek III, stone, 27 cm, somewhere in the South of Germany.
Photo: unknown

Page ‘Royal Cache DB320
In February, I found the second shabti coffin of the Third Intermediate High priest Pinedjem I in the Mummification Museum in Luxor. I was surprised that it was completely different from the one in Cairo. The size looks similar but this one has 3 compartments, the one in Cairo 2. The beautiful decoration is also different.

I estimated the size of the boxes, but they might differ from my compilation. The vertical stroke below right in front of the side panel is part of the cabinet and the left panel is mirrored.

Backside shabtibox Pinedjem I in the Mummification Museum of Luxor

Page ‘Sources
Released today a superb catalogue of the shabtis in the Liverpool Museum by Glenn Janes, see example. The photos are life-size and of excellent quality. The references, written details and translation of hieroglyphs are outstanding. A ‘must have’ for museums, antiquities dealers and collectors of ancient Egyptian artifacts. See

Page ‘Chronology
Shabti of Hat JE39590, Adjutant reign of Akhenaton, before and after the robbery at the Cairo Museum

Page ‘Pharaohs
Thanks to courtesy of a Dutch collector a photo is added of the only known complete specimen of 26th Dynasty King Ahmose II

Page ‘Sources
Dr. Bron Lipkin’s site ‘’ (if the site does not open, use Google to find it, unfortunately the link seems to be blocked by Chrome, DB 06/2020) added with information about fakes. Spanish site of Moises Gonzalez Sucías added with loads of information.

Page ‘Royal Cache
Picture Overseer 2 of Isetemkheb D added
This photo completes the Royal Cache overview
Photo courtesy of GJ

Page ‘Royal Cache
Picture Nesykhonsu A, worker 3 added. Smaller broad specimen with necklace and bracelet
Photo courtesy of GJ

Page ‘Special shabtis
Wax funerary figure with golden mask added

Page ‘Pharaos
Good photo pharaoh Piye (Phianky, 25th Dyn) added from the Cairo Museum 12-2015

Page ‘Determine age
Renewed to offer an easy comprehensive overview

Launching from Cairo with a view on the old Cairo Museum
December 14 at 4 pm